Three-dimensional imaging by micro-computed tomography (ÁCT) and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopes (FIB-SEM) has emerged in recent years as a highly accurate and increasingly affordable method to complement laboratory experiments for the analysis of materials.
Unique insights into the microstructure of materials and, thus, into their way of functioning and the processes involving them ,can be gained through the digital representation of the materials. These insights have already led to better products in many industrial sectors today.
The challenge is to correctly reconstruct the 2D image data of the original material as a digital image. This requires suitable image processing tools and the right segmentation methods. Finally, validation procedures must be used to determine the correlation between the original material and its digital twin.
Although each of these steps holds its own challenges, GeoDict offers the complete solution to get from material to digital twin quickly and easily.
Image processing & image analysis as entry point to digital material development with GeoDict!
GeoDict includes a variety of tools for image processing and image analysis of 3D image datasets and represents an entry point into digital material development.
ImportGeo-Vol module - The toolbox for image processing
With the ImportGeo-Vol module, GeoDict offers a comprehensive toolbox to map the complete image processing workflow for image datasets.
Whether ÁCT, CT, FIB-SEM or synchrotron, GeoDict covers the most common image formats (raw, vol, rek, txm, am, vox, iass, tif(f), jpeg, png, and many more), whether in batch or as single images.
The only limiting factor for the size of the data set is the working memory. Large data requires a lot of memory. If this is given, for example, by tconveniently using the cloud services of the Math2Market partner, the Swiss company KaleidoSim Technologies AG, or any other cloud solution, GeoDict can implement the image processing smoothly.
In ImportGeo-Vol, image and segmentation filters and other settings are clearly mapped as a workflow and can also be recorded, saved and reused as workflow macros. For the analysis, it is crucial how precisely the data set has been segmented. This means that the images must be easily recognizable by GeoDict in order to achieve the best result during segmentation.
ImportGeo-Vol offers the following image filters:
- alignment filter
- noise filter
- sharpening filter
- blur filter
- Artifact filters (streak and ring artifacts)
- Curtaining filter
- Python interface to implement your own image filters
ImportGeo-Vol offers the segmentation tools:
- Manual threshold input
- Otsu method for automated segmentation of one or more materials
- KMeans method for automated segmentation of one or more materials
- AI-segmentation filter, based on labeling of materials
Any segmentation is only good to the extent that it digitally represents the actual material. Since there is no uniform metric or metrics by which to measure the quality of a segmentation, it is then also difficult to determine how representative the obtained digital twin ultimately is.
GeoDict can remedy this situation.
Section of a 18000 x 4000 x 2000 voxel nonwoven ÁCT scan. Fibers are identified and analyzed as individual objects using FiberFind.
Meta material out of Additive Manufacturing. 3D printed by Math2Market after design, development, and property analysis with GeoDict
Representation of the image processing and image analysis workflow in GeoDict shown through a ÁCT scan of a lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery electrode
ÁCT scan of a fiber structure. Right side shows fiber and binder (red) identified and separated with FiberFind
Supplement laboratory analyses with unique insights - thanks to digital material analysis!
Starting with the image processing up to the segmentation and the resulting 3D microstructures, with GeoDict you can conveniently execute this workflow in only one software, even fully automate it.
GeoDict provides all the tools needed to get valuable insights and quantitative analysis results and even material property predictions from the 3D image dataset.
The user benefits from the versatility of GeoDict for analysis and property computation, such as
- the PoroDict module is used for the analysis of pore space,
- combined with MatDict, for the analysis of the solid material
- FlowDict is used to calculate flow properties
- ElastoDict to predict plastic deformation and, thus, damage.
And this is only a small selection of modules and their calculation possibilities.
These geometric analyses are straightforward and, for the most part, can be read directly from the geometry of the material or with only minimal time expenditure in the range of minutes.
Thanks to the material property determination using simulations in GeoDict, a much more detailed picture of the material can be drawn. Be it to determine the filtration performance of a fiber medium, to simulate charge cycles on an electrode to determine the conduction of a battery, or to determine the relative permeability via two-phase flow.